Eternus is a new product created by Neurohacker Collective with purported anti-aging effects. It contains many different vitamins, herbs, and compounds intended to support mitochondrial health and cellular energy. Read on to learn about the science behind Eternus, a formula that claims to help people age better.
What is Eternus?
Eternus is the latest product released by Neurohacker Collective, which describe themselves as innovative thinkers. Eternus claims to address the many things that can go wrong with cells and tissues during aging.
Remember to talk to your doctor before taking Eternus or any other dietary supplement. It is not certain whether Eternus is effective in treating any medical condition. Medicinal use of this product has not been approved by the FDA. Eternus should not be used in place of medication prescribed for you by your doctor.
With this in mind, let’s take a look at the ingredients packed into Eternus and how they may act in the body.
The formula consists of 38 different vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbal extracts, and other compounds intended to increase cellular energy and counteract many of the negative effects of aging on our bodies and minds.
The Neurohacker Collective website states that Eternus is designed to:
- Amplify productivity
- Promote restful sleep
- Support mitochondrial fitness and cell energy
- Upgrade energy levels
- Promote a healthy inflammation response
- Provide support for handling stress
The Science Behind Eternus
Why Do We Age?
Since recorded history, humans have searched for the key to immortality–to cheat death with the help of an elixir, potion, or herb.
While the generations of the past failed in their attempts to drastically prolong life, science is closer than ever to solving the mystery of aging and unlocking the potential to extend human lifespan.
Indeed, researchers have identified and tweaked multiple genes involved in the aging process to greatly extend (or even shorten) the lifespan of model organisms (rodents, flies, worms, and yeast) [1, 2].
Experimental interventions such as caloric restriction, metformin (a diabetes drug), and resveratrol have also considerably increased the lifespan of some non-human organisms and suggest that aging is a flexible process [1, 2].
So why do we age anyways?
There are many proposed theories for the biological cause of aging in humans .
One popular theory states that free radicals produced by mitochondria damage fats, proteins, and DNA, driving the aging process .
Another theory suggests that aging is caused by a buildup of the byproducts of normal day-to-day cellular activities that eventually overwhelm the body .
While researchers aren’t yet in agreement on what causes aging, there is a general agreement on what aging is. Put simply, scientists consider that aging is the accumulation of cellular damage over time that impairs tissue function and increases the risk of death and disease [3, 4].
We notice aging in our daily lives as graying hair and wrinkles, memory problems, aches and pains, loss of energy, and poor sleep.
In a landmark paper published in 2013, longevity researchers identified 9 different types of cellular damage and dysfunction they suspect underlie the aging process, referred to as the “hallmarks of aging” .
Examples include mitochondria (often referred to as the powerhouses of cells) not working as well as they should, shortening of the protective caps at the end of our chromosomes (telomeres), and damaged DNA .
Led by naturopathic physician Dr. Gregory Kelly, the team behind Eternus developed the product with the aim of addressing some of these negative changes.
Let’s take a look at the key mechanisms potentially connected to how Eternus intends to combat the effects of aging.
Mitochondrial Function & Cell Energy (ATP)
One of the main hallmarks of aging Eternus claims to target is mitochondrial dysfunction.
As people age, mitochondria accumulate damage and DNA mutations (mitochondria have their own DNA), becoming less efficient and producing less ATP. This means that cells have less energy to perform vital functions such as removing waste, building proteins, and fighting pathogens .
Mice genetically engineered to have dysfunctional mitochondria age much faster [5, 6].
Eternus contains many different compounds intended to protect mitochondria from damage and improve their function and energy output.
Dysfunctional and damaged mitochondria are constantly being replaced with healthy ones through a process known as mitochondrial biogenesis. Evidence suggests that a slowing down of this process with aging contributes to many negative effects .
Multiple ingredients in Eternus supposedly increase mitochondrial biogenesis by activating a protein called PGC-1a, the master regulator for this process. According to limited research studies, increasing PGC-1a activity tells cells to make new mitochondria, which leads to more energy. This mechanism hasn’t yet been investigated in humans [7, 8].
Eternus also contains various precursors, enzymes, and other compounds they claim cells need to turn the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in food into usable energy.
According to them, this ensures cells have everything they need to make energy and are not limited by any deficiencies.
NAD Levels & Sirtuins
Arguably the most popular topic in the anti-aging and longevity field right now is NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and its potential effects on health, aging, and lifespan .
Some scientists describe NAD as a key redox molecule (donates and accepts electrons) that cells need to produce ATP .
Early research reveals that NAD also activates proteins called sirtuins (genes that make these proteins are abbreviated SIRT1-7). In fact, cell-based studies suggest sirtuins require NAD to work. In turn, scientists suspect that sirtuins help repair DNA, control inflammation, produce energy, and respond to stress [10, 11].
Mutations in SIRT genes that result in higher sirtuin activity extend the lifespan of yeast, worms, and flies. Studies in animals and humans have yet to be conducted [12, 13, 14].
Additionally, studies highlight that NAD levels decline as people age. Researchers debate that this drop in NAD may be involved in many age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), and Alzheimer’s disease .
Eternus claims to boost NAD levels, aiming to help counteract the negative effects of aging by making sure sirtuins have enough NAD to do their job .
Eternus also contains compounds that purportedly activate some of the sirtuin genes.
New studies hint that inflammation may contribute to the harmful effects of aging in a process known as “inflammaging” .
According to the scientists behind these studies, the immune system goes haywire and inflammation gradually increases with aging, even in the absence of any real threat such as an infection or tissue damage .
They hypothesize that this chronic, low-level “sterile” inflammation plays a role in many different diseases of aging including Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer [16, 17, 18, 15].
Scientists describe AMPK as an enzyme that senses how much energy a cell has .
They found that when energy becomes low, AMPK gets activated–causing the cell to rev up energy production and put a halt to less important cellular processes .
Some researchers believe that activating AMPK also causes many other beneficial changes in the cell that may help with aging, including [20, 19, 21, 22]:
- Recycling damaged proteins and mitochondria (autophagy)
- Making new mitochondria
- Increasing insulin sensitivity
- Activating sirtuin genes
- Reducing inflammation
They conclude that the lifespan-enhancing effects of caloric restriction may be due in part to AMPK activation [23, 20].
AMPK activation also extends the lifespan of worms and flies [24, 25].
Eternus contains multiple ingredients claimed to act as AMPK activators.
1) B Vitamin Complex
B vitamins play important roles in converting the raw materials found in food into energy cells can use to perform vital day-to-day functions .
In addition to helping build red blood cells that deliver the oxygen cells need to make energy, vitamin B12 and folate (B9) are both involved in repairing DNA that becomes damaged as people age [27, 28].
Niacin (B3) also serves as a precursor to NAD, which may enhance energy production and DNA repair according to limited research. More studies about the anti-aging effects of B vitamins are needed .
2) Vitamin K2
Vitamin K2 is a form of vitamin K found in dairy, meats, and fermented foods. Research suggests it helps the body use calcium correctly and prevents it from being deposited in the arteries .
As people age, the arteries get stiffer, in part due to calcium buildup. This increases the risk of heart disease and stroke [31, 32, 33].
Higher intakes of vitamin K2 have been linked to a lower risk of heart disease in some studies. According to other studies, supplementing with vitamin K2 improves arterial stiffness. Though vitamin K2 appears to be good for cardiovascular health, additional research about its potential anti-aging effects would be beneficial [34, 35, 36, 37].
3) Tri-creatine Malate
Tri-creatine malate consists of three creatine compounds bound to one malate compound.
Creatine is used by the muscles as a source of quick energy during intense bouts of exercise. It’s mostly found in animal foods and research suggests vegetarians and vegans have significantly lower creatine levels than meat eaters [38, 39, 40].
Creatine is popular for improving strength and performance, but research suggests it may also protect mitochondria from oxidative stress and improves their function .
Limited research gives clues about its potential to help recycle used ATP, so more energy is available to the cell .
Malate is a key compound involved in the Krebs cycle– the process that turns the energy in food into ATP .
One study claimed that supplementing with malate can increase antioxidant levels in the mitochondria to help protect them from oxidative stress. Large-scale studies are needed to back up this claim .
4) β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric Acid (HMB)
β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric Acid (HMB) is an experimental compound made from the amino acid L-leucine. Some scientists believe it helps promote recovery of damaged muscles and prevents muscle protein breakdown .
Cell-based studies suggest that HMB activates PGC-1α, stimulating the production of new mitochondria in the muscle .
Other studies found that HMB levels may fall with aging, which might result in reduced muscle mass and strength. According to early studies, supplementing with HMB shows promise for preventing the loss of strength in old age .
5) Magnesium Glycinate
Magnesium is an important mineral and electrolyte that is used by more than 300 enzymes in the body .
It is required by the ATP synthase enzyme in mitochondria that makes ATP and also helps with the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins during energy production .
Studies show that magnesium glycinate is absorbed much better than other magnesium salts (like magnesium oxide), even in people who have suffered intestinal damage .
Additionally, glycine is an amino acid used to make the master antioxidant glutathione as well as collagen proteins found in the skin and joints .
Glycine-enriched diets extend the lifespan of worms and mice, possibly by protecting against the negative effects of another amino acid called methionine. Though generally healthy when obtained through dietary sources, clinical studies are needed to confirm the anti-aging effects and safety of different magnesium supplements [52, 53].
6) Rosemary Leaf Extract
A member of the mint family, rosemary boasts a wide range of health-promoting compounds including the terpenes carnosic, rosmarinic, and ursolic acids .
Research suggests that carnosic and rosmarinic acids protect mitochondria in brain cells [55, 56].
On the other hand, ursolic acid extends the lifespan of flies in part by protecting mitochondria and stimulating the production of new mitochondria. Whether it does the same in animals and humans is unknown .
Limited research reveals that rosemary may activate the SIRT1 gene, which helps repair DNA. It may also activate AMPK, which researchers think may help maintain healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels [58, 59].
Rosemary leaf extract found in Eternus is standardized to contain 50% ursolic acid.
7) Cocoa Seed Extract
Cocoa contains numerous polyphenol compounds that have beneficial effects in the body, including improving heart health and reducing inflammation .
Epicatechin from cocoa reduces fatigue in mice, improves mitochondrial efficiency, and stimulates the growth of new mitochondria. These effects have not been confirmed in humans [61, 62].
Cocoa extracts extend the lifespan of rodents, flies, and worms by improving their resistance to stress and increasing levels of key antioxidants [63, 64, 65].
Some scientists proposed that cocoa polyphenols may also help slow aging by increasing NAD levels and activating the SIRT1 gene .
8) Cinnamon Bark Extract
Insulin allows cells to use sugar from food.
As people age, cells become less responsive to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance), which often lowers insulin production in the long run. This means sugar may stay in the blood for longer .
High blood sugar levels may contribute to aging via a process called glycation in which sugar “sticks” to proteins. The hemoglobin A1c test, used to monitor long-term blood sugar levels, is actually a measure of how much sugar is glycated, or “stuck,” to proteins in red blood cells .
Damage from glycation has been linked to various age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes, cataracts, and Alzheimer’s disease in some studies .
Additionally, research shows that children of long-lived individuals (over 90 years) have significantly greater insulin sensitivity, lower blood sugar, and lower rates of diabetes than children of individuals who lived shorter lifespans [69, 70].
Cinnamon is well-researched for its ability to improve insulin sensitivity and regulate blood sugar levels. Newer studies suggest it may also extend the lifespan of fruit flies and worms, possibly by activating AMPK [71, 67, 72, 73].
The patented extract found in Eternus reduced blood sugar levels and blood pressure in a clinical trial of prediabetic and diabetic people. Large-scale studies are needed .
L-carnitine is an amino acid that helps transport fats into mitochondria for conversion into energy. It’s also an antioxidant that protects the brain and supports heart health [75, 76, 77, 78].
The human body only produces 25% of its daily needs and the rest comes from food .
Research alludes that carnitine levels decrease dramatically with age, which may contribute to fatigue and poor muscle function .
According to limited studies, supplementing with L-carnitine may increase weight loss, insulin sensitivity, energy levels, and endurance and recovery from exercise [81, 75, 82].
10) Red Grape Extract (Resveratrol)
Resveratrol is a compound produced by plants in response to injury or fungal infection. It’s found in especially high levels in the skin of red grapes [83, 84].
Cell-based studies found resveratrol may improve mitochondrial function by activating the SIRT1 gene and PGC-1a .
Other studies revealed it may also activate AMPK, possibly increasing insulin sensitivity and protecting against the harmful effects of high-calorie diets .
It extends the lifespan of yeast, worms, flies, and obese mice, but surprisingly has no effect on longevity in healthy mice. Human studies are lacking to confirm its anti-aging effects .
In addition to resveratrol, red grape extract also contains other antioxidant polyphenols such as quercetin and proanthocyanidins. Limited research suggests these compounds may help maintain good health by [86, 87, 88, 89, 90]:
- Protecting mitochondria
- Increasing NAD levels
- Decreasing inflammation
- Preventing hardening of the arteries
11) Inositol (Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol)
Inositol is the name for a group of nine similar compounds found naturally in the body. The most abundant form is myo-inositol, while D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is found in much lower levels (40:1 ratio in the blood) .
Inositol is packed into every cell in the body. Scientists think it helps with insulin sensitivity, which gets worse as people age [92, 93].
Small clinical studies found that supplementing with myo-inositol and DCI helps increase insulin sensitivity, especially in obese people and women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [92, 94].
Other researchers discovered that myo-inositol may also boost low thyroid function and help support healthy energy levels [95, 96].
Eternus combines the two forms in the same ratio as that found in the body, which supposedly increases their effectiveness [91, 97].
12) Ancient Peat and Apple Fruit Extract
Peat is partially decomposed vegetable matter. A proprietary extract from ancient peat and apples contains compounds that purportedly stimulate the mitochondria to produce more ATP [98, 99].
A small study suggests that the extract is able to increase muscle size and improve strength and power during training, which may help reduce the muscle loss that occurs with age. Larger studies should replicate these findings [99, 100].
Ashwagandha is an herb long-used in the Ayurveda traditional medicine system. Alternative medicine practitioners claim it helps “restore vitality and improve resistance to stress” .
Clinical trials show it may increase muscle size, recovery, and strength in response to training. Other studies suggest it also improves fat loss, reduces stress and anxiety, and decreases levels of the stress hormone cortisol [102, 103, 104].
According to some scientists, its supposedly energizing effects may be due to increasing ATP production, protecting mitochondria from toxins, and boosting thyroid function [105, 106, 107].
14) Tripotassium Citrate Monohydrate
Potassium is an important mineral and electrolyte that is needed by certain enzymes to produce ATP .
In the Eternus formulation, it is bound to citric acid (citrate).
Citric acid plays a major role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle) that generates ATP in mitochondria .
According to limited research, supplementing with citric acid activates this cycle to help generate energy and reduce fatigue. More studies are needed to confirm its benefit .
15) Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract
Gynostemma pentaphyllum, also known as Jiaogulan, is an herb found in South and East Asia that is widely used in Chinese medicine to help with liver disease and diabetes .
Cell-based studies suggest its strong anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory potential, but it is not well-tested humans [111, 112].
In cell studies, Gynostemma pentaphyllum protected mitochondria from damage [113, 114].
16) Kaempferia parviflora Root Extract
Kaempferia parviflora is a plant in the ginger family that mainly grows in Southeast Asia .
In mice, Kaempferia parviflora root improved mitochondrial function and increased ATP levels .
Although there are few clinical trials, the root extracts have been shown to improve performance during endurance exercise and increase hand grip strength (an indicator of overall muscle strength) in elderly people and healthy athletes. Large-scale studies are needed to determine its safety and effectiveness [115, 117, 118].
17) Alpha-lipoic Acid
Some researchers consider alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) a powerful antioxidant compound that increases levels of the master antioxidant glutathione, which declines with age .
According to limited studies, ALA may also help fight aging and support healthy energy levels by [119, 120, 121, 122]:
- Protecting mitochondria and improving their function
- Increasing insulin sensitivity
- Protecting DNA
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine that also helps boost glutathione levels [123, 124].
NAC increases the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice [125, 126, 127, 128].
Scientists hypothesize it may have longevity benefits, since it has the potential to reduce inflammation, protect DNA, and increase antioxidant defenses in the cell. However, its anti-aging effects will remain unfounded until proper clinical studies are carried out .
L-tryptophan is an amino acid that can be used to make NAD .
Researchers revealed it may help boost the neurotransmitter serotonin, which may improve mood [129, 130].
It’s an essential amino acid, meaning the body can’t make it, so we must get it from food or supplements .
20) Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound needed by mitochondria to produce ATP [132, 133].
It is also found in cell membranes and in lipoproteins – such as LDL and HDL – where it might act as a powerful antioxidant. CoQ10 stabilizes and protects cell membranes, allowing cells to function properly .
CoQ10 is mainly found in two forms in the body: ubiquinone and ubiquinol .
Eternus contains the more potent and better-absorbed ubiquinol form that is responsible for the antioxidant benefits of CoQ10 [135, 136].
Researchers found that levels of CoQ10 decrease with age, possibly due to the loss of muscle mass and decrease in activity that occurs with aging [137, 138, 139].
As CoQ10 levels fall, mitochondria are unable to produce as much energy, leading to fatigue and weakness .
In older mice, CoQ10 prevents the decline in mental and physical function due to aging [141, 142].
CoQ10 increases the lifespan of rats, bees, and worms. Similarly, mice deficient in CoQ10 live shorter lives. However, some studies in mice and rats have found no effect on lifespan [143, 144, 143, 145].
A 4-year trial of over 440 elderly people found that a combination of selenium and CoQ10 improved vitality, physical performance, and quality of life .
Rutin is often described as a potent antioxidant. It is composed of quercetin bound to a sugar molecule called rutinose .
Studies suggest it stimulates the creation of new mitochondria by activating AMPK and extends the lifespan of flies [148, 149].
Eternus uses an extract from the Japanese Pagoda Tree (Sophorae japonica) that contains 95% rutin as well as other anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds .
Eternus uses an orange extract that contains 45% nobelitin, a citrus bioflavonoid.
In older mice, nobiletin improved mitochondrial function and increased ATP production in the muscle. Research on nobiletin is still in the early, investigational phases .
23) Strawberry Seed Extract (Tiliroside)
Tiliroside is a compound found in strawberry seeds. Some scientists believe it has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties .
Strawberry seed extract increased the number of mitochondria and reduced DNA damage in old mice by activating AMPK. Human studies haven’t investigated this compound yet .
Apigenin is a compound found in many different plants that shows anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory potential .
In mice given a drug that accelerates aging, apigenin increased antioxidant levels and reduced the formation of senescent cells (zombie-like, pro-inflammatory cells that are one of the hallmarks of aging) .
Apigenin also improves mitochondrial function and increases mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Its effects in humans are largely unknown .
25) Pyrroloquinoline Quinone
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a compound needed for reproductive health, growth, and development .
Proponents call it a powerful antioxidant–more potent than vitamin C–that helps protect mitochondria from oxidative damage .
According to limited evidence, PQQ improves mitochondrial function and stimulates the growth of new mitochondria, which increases energy levels [159, 160, 161].
In a trial of 17 people, 20 mg PQQ reduced fatigue and anxiety and improved sleep quality. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm these effects .
Who is Eternus For?
Eternus is designed to help counteract some of the negative aspects of aging. The team behind this formulation believes that the older a person is, the more likely they are to see a benefit from taking it. However, they say that younger people may still see a benefit as many of the ingredients in Eternus support overall health, energy, and well-being.
Many people report more energy and better sleep after using Eternus. Others find that it improves focus, motivation, and mood. Some found no effect at all.
The most common negative experience was having to swallow the daily recommended dose of 8 capsules.
While many of the ingredients in Eternus have increased the lifespan of mice, flies, worms, and yeast there are no clinical trials examining their individual or combined effects on human lifespan.
Although many of the ingredients were safe in clinical trials, negative effects due to potential interactions between them are possible.
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